Imagine two different grade books for the same set of students, as shown in Figure 1. Which one of the two students mastered the learning targets and what do they still need to learn? The standards-based grade book gives a wealth of information to help the teacher enhance their instruction. Students can also see much more information about their learning. In the traditional grade book, Amanda would assume she is in great shape, but standards-based grading reveals that she has not mastered a crucial concept. Gifted and talented students can be truly challenged in a standards-based classroom because, if they show early mastery of fundamental skills and concepts, they can then concentrate on more challenging work that is at higher levels of Bloom's taxonomy or that seeks connections that exceeds the objectives. Students who struggle can continue to retest and use alternative assessments until they show proficiency. They are not penalized for needing extended time to demonstrate mastery of specific learning targets. This can guide students with special needs to modify their work and, if needed, develop different ways of demonstrating that they've mastered their proficiency goals. Their working styles can be easily accommodated in this system because modified assignments and assessments require no special adjustments in the grade book. The grade book simply shows where they are in meeting the standards, without reference to how they are demonstrating their learning or what modifications needed to be made.